Ireland’s Abbey Theatre was founded in 1904. Under the guidance of W. B. Yeats and Lady Augusta Gregory, it became instrumental to the success of many of the leading Irish playwrights and actors of the early twentieth century. Conventional wisdom holds that the playwright Sean O’Casey was the first to offer a new vision of Irish authenticity in the people and struggles of inner-city Dublin in his groundbreaking trilogy. Mannion challenges this view, documenting an established tradition of urban plays within the Abbey repertoire that has long been overlooked by critics. This book offers a rich source of archival material as well as a fascinating revision to the story of this celebrated institution.